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COSTUMES AND MAKE-UP AS VARIABLE TOOLS FOR CULTURAL PROMOTION AND PRESERVATION: A CASE STUDY OF THE ADIAFAA FESTIVAL OF EPIE ATISAA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 55 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   67 people found this useful

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ABSTRACT

The study on costume and make-up as variable tools for cultural promotion and preservation aimed at evaluating the effect of costumes and make-up on cultural promotion and preservation, to determine the relationship between costumes, make-up and culture, to determine the extent to which costumes and make-up affect culture. The study made use of primary data which are gotten from the distribution of the research questionnaires; the sample size for the study is 100. The study made use of the Pearson correlation method for the analysis. The study therefore concluded that there is a statistically significantly (0.00) strong relationship (0.819) between the responses of the respondents that said that Costumes and make-up has significant effect on the promotion and preservation of culture and those that said that the costume and make-up style of the epie-atissa people is very unique. The study also made useful recommendation to assist the federal government in decision making

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Culture is the sum of attitude, customs and beliefs that distinguishes one group of people from another, transmitted through language, materials, objects, rituals, institutions and arts, transferable from one generation to the next. To this Edward Taylor contributes that; Culture is that complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society. Holt Michael, (2002).

 This in essence explains further that culture cuts across all dimensions of life as practiced by a people in a given setting and within an age. The culture of a people means a lot to them, their lives and beliefs are expressed as they live and go about their everyday businesses. This simply shows that culture conditions the communication of a people and how it proceeds among individuals, no matter how homogenous.

To this, Ngugi wa Thiong .O (2005) contributes that; Culture in its broadest sense, is a way of life fashioned by a people in their collective endeavor to live and come to term with their total environment. It is the sum of their arts, their science and all the social institutions, including their system of beliefs and rituals…Such values are often expressed through the people’s song, rites, these varieties of artistic activity have come to symbolize the meaning of the word, culture.

 Brackett (2004) the concept of culture has a long evolution, so dynamic in nature. The Anthropologists has an assumption that culture is generally adaptive as it provides people an adjustment to their physical and social environment, the basic or derived needs of individuals within the society, such as the need of nutrition, reproduction, comfort, safety, relaxation, clothing, shelter and growth. This simply means that culture is a learned behavior shared by a member of a society, which could be said to start when a child is born. It is culture that distinguishes human beings from other animals. To support this, Richardson Boyd states that; Culture is information capable of affecting individual’s behavior that they acquire from other members of their space through teaching, imitation and other forms of social transmission. Oghali Okpu (2015).

Costume and make up is a very important aspect of a people. The culture of a people identifiable by the kind of costume and make up they put on, as it is always the first call of attention, not only for the external covering of the body, they are unique identities particular to people, which identifies them in any gathering or location. To support this, Julie Umuokoro(2002) as quoted by Tracie Ezeajugh(2007) maintains that; Cultural Symbolism is the hallmark of the Nigerian traditional dress. It is consciously or unconsciously evolved to bear emblems unique to its owner.

Such emblems may be derived from common features in the environment, it may also be persistent contact of an ethnic groupwith some other, be a feature borrowed, appropriated and seemingly endorsed by widespread acceptance and use as one of its ethnic symbols. Brackett Oscar (2004) explains costume and make up as symbolic and carrier of information, as it concerns a people to the end. It gives expressive and explanatory information of the wearers, an aid to characterization, that in performance for instance, it speaks volume, even before the characters begin to speak or express themselves. In any event or production, the costume and make up worn speaks all about the people and the production they are involved in, it consists the total visual appearance of the character in any performance. It stands as a very important fact of a character and stands as the strongest element of the visual sense in a production.

Make up on the other hand plays a complimentary role to costume. Some make up practitioners see it as costuming; it has an innate communicative connection with the appearance of the actor. Make up is use to conceal all the exposed part, that was not concealed by the costume worn by an actor, and its form could be in liquid or solid form depending on its purpose and communicative potency.

Michael J Gillette (2001) opines that; Stage make up enhances the illusion that the actor has become the character. In almost every production. Some of the actors… do not facially resemble the challenge by providing actors with the means to change their appearance, Merril, E (2004) This simply means that make up is very essential in performances, as it changes an actor into that desirable character in the world of the performance

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study on costumes and make-up as variable tools for cultural promotion and preservation came about as a result people neglecting the dressing pattern and make-up pattern of their ethnic groups, all in the name of “we are in the 21st century”. This is because many ethnic groups in Nigeria no longer recognize the fact that costume and make up goes beyond articles of beautification, despite the socio-cultural, political and economic context of Nigeria’s diverse ethnic groups. The style in which costume and make up are made into, this days, no longer represent its cultural identity, it is a sure fact that no culture grows in isolation, but not recognizing the communicative essence of costumes and make up is a difficult issue. Finally, most of the research has been carried out on costumes and make-up but not even a single research has been carried on costumes and make-up as variable tools for cultural promotion and preservation.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the study is to determine costume and make-up as variable tools for cultural promotion and preservation. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. to determine the effect of costumes and make-up on cultural promotion and preservation.
  2. to determine the relationship between costumes, make-up and culture.
  3. to determine the extent to which costumes and make-up affect culture.
  4. to proffer possible solution to the stated problems.

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS               

  1. What is the effect of costumes and make-up on cultural promotion and preservation?
  2. What is the relationship between costumes, make-up and culture?
  3. What is the extent to which costumes and make-up affect culture?
  4. What is the possible solution to the stated problems?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0:   Costumes and make-up does not have a significant effect on the promotion and preservation of culture.

H1:      Costumes and make-up has significant effect on the promotion and preservation of culture.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on costumes and make-up as variable tools for cultural promotion and preservation will be of immense benefit to the entire people of Epie Atissa in the sense that it will make them see the reasons for cultural promotion through the use of costumes and make-up in other to promote and preserve their culture, it will also showcase costumes and make up as very important in performance, as a first call of attention in performance, to give character definition. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on costumes and make-up as variable tools for cultural promotion and preservation is limited to the Adiafaa festival of Epe Atisaa.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Costumes      Is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch

Make-up  These are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

Culture    the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.

Promotion      Activity that supports or encourages a cause.

Preservation    Refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record with as little changes to the original record as possible.

Festival   Is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:55
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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