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NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND THE TRENDS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 53 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   24 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nuclear medicine professionals provide diagnostic, evaluation, and therapeutic services to patients using knowledge of human anatomy and cellular biology. In 2002, 18.4 million nuclear medicine procedures were performed in 7,000 U.S. hospital and non-hospital provider sites, an increase from 16.8 million in 2001 [IMV, 2003]. Nuclear medicine imaging is a valuable tool for detecting pathology, for staging patient disease, and for selecting and evaluating treatment protocols. Nuclear Medicine is a synthesis field in medicine since the work requires understanding of basic and advanced principles of a variety of sciences including physics, biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. Using radiopharmaceuticals ingested by, inhaled by, or injected in a patient, nuclear medicine professionals can identify and stage disease processes. Studies are also performed to check organ function and hormone levels. Radiopharmaceuticals, which are produced from radionuclides (unstable atoms that emit radiation), are given to patients in very small quantities. Using a variety of gamma cameras (the type is determined by the kinds of images desired), the light emissions from the radioactive materials in the body are traced, measured, and located and images are produced for evaluation and diagnosis. Cellular process in the body enables the nuclear medicine professional to make accurate diagnosis of problem sites. Radiopharmaceuticals are metabolized at different rates by various kinds of cells in the body and in various organs. These tracers permit evaluation of the presence or absence of disease, the location of diseased tissue, and also about the efficacy of treatments that have been or might be initiated. Currently, there are over 100 nuclear medicine procedures with capability to image every major organ system. [About the USA, 2004].

        Many radiopharmaceuticals have been developed as specific tracers to understand a particular organ or organ system. For instance, cardiac perfusion testing is done with thallium, technetium, or rubidium because the properties of these radioactive substances interact with body process to permit excellent cardiac imaging. Although some radiopharmaceuticals like technetium are utilized to image a number of organs/body systems, some tracers are quite specific/ particular. As an example, Indium is a very specific radionuclide that works well in detecting soft-tissue infection in the body [Taylor et al, 2004]. Gallium whose properties are non-specific to tumor tissue or to inflammation is excellent for imaging in patients with AIDS [Taylor et al, 2004].

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In some cases, multiple radiopharmaceuticals are used together to enhance or elaborate imaging in a patient. Dual isotope studies with Cardiolite and thallium measuring cardiac perfusion are an example of such applications. Nuclear medicine procedures may be performed almost immediately after ingestion/injection of the radiopharmaceutical or performed several days after depending on the half life and other properties of the radiopharmaceutical(s) being used. Nuclear Medicine imaging differs from diagnostic radiology in that it documents anatomic function and not just anatomy. Nuclear medicine provides real time images of cellular process and organ function permitting the diagnostician and the treating physician to understand patient disease. Although in Nigeria nuclear medicine has not really been utilized; it could be as a result of lack of equipments, lack of adequate funding and lack of professionals to really bring the latest trends in nuclear medicine in most of the Nigeria medical centers. Lastly there have been series of studies on nuclear medicine but not even a single study has been carry out on medicine and the trends in nuclear medicine.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine nuclear medicine and the trends in nuclear medicine. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. to examine the evolution of nuclear medicine in Nigeria
  2. to investigate on the factors affecting the growth in trends of nuclear medicine
  3. to determine the issues in practice of nuclear medicine in Nigeria
  4. to determine the use of nuclear medicine in Nigeria medical centers
  5. to proffer solution to the above stated problems

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

  1. What is the evolution of nuclear medicine in Nigeria?
  2. What are the factors affecting the growth in trends of nuclear medicine?
  3. What are the issues in practice of nuclear medicine in Nigeria?
  4. What is the use of nuclear medicine in Nigeria medical centers?
  5. What is the way forward to the issues in nuclear medicine?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1

H0: the issues in practice of nuclear medicine in Nigeria is low

H1: the issues in practice of nuclear medicine in Nigeria is high

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study on nuclear medicine and the trends in nuclear medicine will be of immense benefit to the entire medical centers, and school of medicine in Nigeria. The study will also serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on nuclear medicine and the trends in nuclear medicine.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will focus on nuclear medicine and the trends in nuclear medicine; looking at three medical centers that uses nuclear medicine in Nigeria.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Nuclear medicine: the branch of medicine that deals with the use of radioactive substances in research, diagnosis, and treatment.

Radiology: Radiology is the medical specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases within the body

X-ray: X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your body. 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:53
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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