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THE ROLE OF FOREIGN ELECTION OBSERVERS ON CREDIBLE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF 2019 GENERAL ELECTIONS

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 60 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   54 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Elections provide an opportunity to test and strengthen a wide range of institutions and processes in a democracy. They offer a country’s citizens a means of expressing their political will, which the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and every other major international human rights instrument recognise as the basis for the authority of government (Merloe 1999). Neutral, independent and conscientious observation of the electoral process has become an important element of the democratic process.

It contributes to the credibility and impartiality of elections by providing information about the electoral process. Election observation and monitoring build voter confidence in the integrity of the process as well as the integrity of the election management body. The presence of observers and monitors may discourage or expose violence or intimidation and cheating or manipulation of the vote or the results (Pastor 1998; Hyde 2007; McFaul 2007; Kelley 2010).

As it had done with previous elections recently conducted in Nigeria, the government invited several local and international observers to observe the 2011 general elections. The elections, which took place in the fiftieth year of Nigeria’s independence, were described as a ‘serious test of the strength of the country’s commitment to elective government’ (INEC 2011, p 1). Among other reasons, the elections were considered crucial because the 2007 elections had been heavily criticised by both local and international observers.

Although those elections resulted in the transfer of power from one civilian administration to another, serious irregularities and election-related violence undermined the credibility of the outcome, weakened the legitimacy of the leaders elected and led to increased public disillusionment with the democratic process. In fact, the late Umar Musa Yar’Adua, who became president as a result of the elections, acknowledged the anomalies that characterised them and appointed an Electoral Reform Committee (ERC) in August 2007, presided over by former Chief Justice Mohammed Uwais, to review the electoral process and the legal framework.

In December 2008, the ERC published its report, known as the Uwais Report. In a bid to ensure that ‘every vote counted’, Nigeria’s electoral body, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) made elaborate preparations to ensure that the 2011 general elections were credible and met international standards.

Among these arrangements was the body’s invitation to both local and international observers to witness the process and outcome of the elections. This article examines this monitoring and observation process. It reviews some of the reports of local and international observers and examines the extent to which they reflected the quality of the elections.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        It is obvious that most people wants that which is good for them but often times they might not want to spend in achieving those things. In Nigeria, credible presidential and peaceful election is possible but it is just that the people involved might not want to invite foreign bodies into the election of Nigeria for a maximum output instead they believe they can do it all alone; this could be a as a result of expenses involved in making all the necessary arrangements from the inception of the election to the ending part of it. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the effect of election on public opinion towards democracy but not even a single research has been carried out on the role of foreign election observers on credible presidential election in Nigeria.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

        The main aim of the study is to examine the role of foreign election observers on credible presidential election in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. to determine the effect of foreign election observers on presidential election in Nigeria.
  2. to determine the factors affecting foreign election observers in the conduction of credible presidential election in Nigeria.
  3. to determine the extent to which foreign election observers affects credible presidential election in Nigeria.
  4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS               

  1. What is the effect of foreign election observers on presidential election in Nigeria?
  2. What are the factors affecting foreign election observers in the conduction of credible presidential election in Nigeria?
  3. What is the extent to which foreign election observers affects credible presidential election in Nigeria?
  4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0:   Foreign election observers have no significant effect on credible election in Nigeria.   

H1:      Foreign election observers have a significant effect on credible election in Nigeria.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

        The study on the role of foreign election observers on credible presidential election will be of immense benefit to the entire Nigeria in the sense that it will enable the INEC to maintain the standard of election and also work to according to the guideline of the election without any kind of favoritism to anyone. It would also enable the INEC to make available the working materials for the election. For a developing country to arrive at a peaceful leadership choice making, foreign observers are needed to monitor, oversee the arrangement and all the information needed must be gotten in other to know how to help the country achieve a credible presidential election. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of studies and basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

        The study on the role of foreign election observers on credible presidential election is limited to Nigeria.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Role         The function assumed or part played by a person or thing in a particular situation.

Foreign   Of, from, in, or characteristic of a country or language other than one's own.

Election  The formal process of selecting a person for public office or of accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting.

Observers                A person who watches what happens but has no active part in it.

Credible   Able to be believed; convincing.

 

Presidential    Relating to a president or presidency.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:60
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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