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NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE 2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA: A CONTENT ANALYSIS: CONTENT ANALYSIS TWO NEWSPAPERS

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 67 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   233 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Election has variously been defined by scholars as the process of choosing a person or persons for a political position, usually by way of voting. This process forms one of the major defining characters of a democratic society. A society is therefore said to practice true democracy if the processes of choosing representatives of the people in government are not only free and fair but perceived as such by the electorates (Ezinwa, 2014).

This process, Koja (2007) opines should permit “the electorates to legitimately exercise their franchise under conditions which theoretically speaking should be devoid of rancor.” It is therefore impossible “to conceive of people exercising their democratic aspirations without effective participation in the electoral process” (Coliver and Merloe, 1994). Election is a time to express and partake in two main universal principles of rights: the right to freedom of opinion and expression and adult right to vote and be voted for” (Atoyebi, 2011). Both rights are incontrovertible and basic. While the former guarantees the freedom to seek, receive and or exchange information or ideas within the ambit of the law, the later defines ones rights and obligations as a bonafide citizen of the state in contradistinction to aliens (Ezinwa, 2014).

The definition of ‘electoral system as consisting of only the process of voting and counting of votes’ may not be adequate. A full description should include such features as the “extent of franchise i.e. who is entitled to vote, rule regulating candidates and parties, elections especially provisions against corruption; methods of counting votes and the size of the constituency” (Ndoh, 2003).

This clarification became necessary because some people ignorantly confuse electoral system for elections which is just an aspect of the system. “Elections come in two stages. One is the campaign period; the other is the polling or voting period” (Udeorah, 2007). The nature of elections in Nigeria, just like in much of the third world is characterized by tense moments which if not handled with care can snap.

This places a major challenge on the media in their acclaimed fourth estate and watchdog contract to the audience to ensure the stability of the polity by being socially responsible in their coverage. This scale of responsibility also weighs heavily on the media ombudsman because the degree of media regulation and the independence of the regulator may be important in determining the actual conditions under which the media operates.

 However, past experiences in Nigeria from independence show that the government owned media pay little attention to public interest or to fair and balanced coverage of electoral issues, but rely more on serving the whims of either the highest bidder, or the party/candidate in power (Onyike, Chiaha, Ukoh & Ushi, 2006).

The media, whether publicly or privately owned, are expected to uphold the ethics of journalism, which include balance, accuracy, fairness, objectivity, factuality e.tc. However, observation shows that there tends to be favourable treatment given to ruling parties especially during elections). As proposed by the pluralist theory, the media owners are generally supposed to be responsible in the way that they manage media contents shaped by consumer demand in the marketplace by giving the buying public what they want (Curran,2002; Ozohu-Suleiman, 2013). Editors, and journalists are presumed to have strong sense of professional ethics, which act as checks and controls on potential owner abuse of the media.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        The media, in all their manifestations, are instruments to make or mar the attainment to leadership positions, especially of political aspirants. The vibrant flow of information provided by the media seems to increase political knowledge, sharpen public debate and push candidates to make genuine political cliches, and arguably also, the availability of alternative sources of information gives life to political competition. The more sources of information available, the greater the public’s knowledge, and this role is performed by the media.

        Irrespective of the fact that the media creates awareness, majority of the populace and even voters lack basic knowledge about the entire political process, and may take unreasonable decisions on election matters particularly. Slant, language, frequency, interest and bias of reportage which the media chooses may have negative or positive influence on voting behaviour and consequently on leadership ascendancy which in the negative leads to electoral violence.

Finally, several research has been carried out on the effect of newspaper coverage of Boko Haram in Nigeria but not even a single research has been carried out on newspaper coverage of the 2019 presidential election in Nigeria: a content analysis: content analysis two newspaper.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

        The main aim of the study is to examine newspaper coverage of 2019 presidential election. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. to determine the direction of the contents on the 2019 presidential election.
  2. to determine how sensational the Nigerian newspapers in their coverage of the presidential election campaigns.
  3. to determine the influence of newspaper coverage on leadership ascendancy in 2019 Presidential election in Nigeria.
  4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems
    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS               

1      What is the direction of the contents on the 2019 presidential election?

2      how sensational were the Nigerian newspapers in their coverage of the presidential election campaigns?

3      What is the influence of newspaper coverage on leadership ascendancy in 2019 Presidential election in Nigeria?

4      What are possible solutions to the problems?

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on newspaper coverage of the 2019 presidential election will be of immense benefit to the entire Nigeria in the sense that it will enlighten relevant stakeholders such as, political parties, candidates and civic society organization, on the influence of reporting on political awareness and campaign opportunity. The study would guide the thought of the electorate not to believe everything they hear from the media. It will also add to the body of existing knowledge on the type of influence exerted by media reporting on voting behaviour.

This research would inform government and other electoral management body that media reporting will continue to set agenda for political discussion and voting behavior for people during elections, consequently impacting leadership ascendancy.

It will also ignite or kindle voters’ verification of information reported by the media before taking a decision on which candidate to vote for. It would create the consciousness on voters on the need to rely on credible alternate sources of information before making their decision. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of studies and basis for further research.

1.6   SCOPE OF STUDY

        The study will cover on the content analysis of punch and vanguard newspaper coverage of the 2019 presidential election.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Newspaper       A printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence.

Presidential    Relating to a president or presidency.

Election  A formal and organized choice by vote of a person for a political office or other position.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:67
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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