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Project Topic:

INSTALLATION SCARCITY OF SOLAR POWER: EFFECT ON STRUCTURAL CONSTRUCTION IN RURAL AREAS

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 54 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis ::   67 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Solar technology isn’t new. Its history spans from the 7th Century B.C. to today. It started out concentrating the sun’s heat with glass and mirrors to light fires. Today, we have everything from solar-powered buildings to solar powered vehicles. The Rural Electrification Program of 2006 was the first step by the Nigerian Government in recognizing the importance of solar power. It gave guidelines for the implementation of off-grid solar applications. However, at this early stage, only 33.8MW (as on 14-2-2012) of capacity was installed through this policy. This primarily included solar lanterns, solar pumps, home lighting systems, street lighting systems and solar home systems. In 2007, as a next step, India introduced the Semiconductor Policy to encourage the electronic and IT industries.

On the other hand housing and buildings contribute significantly to the fulfilment of social and other day to day needs of human life. In most of the developing countries desired attention is not given to the scientific planning and structural safety of buildings particularly in rural areas resulting in loss of lives and property due to natural calamities.

There is need for a deep understanding of traditional architecture, which constitutes a reservoir of centuries-old building knowledge, so as to recreate using the modern idiom, materials and techniques that same consistency and harmonious relationship with the location (Rattray, 1988).

In this regard, the research group of the Spatial Engineering Division of the University of Bologna has undertaken a participatory research project with the competent planning authorities and the agricultural, architectural and building trade associations. Based on a critical review of the technical-scientific literature on architectural approaches to design, with particular emphasis on the relation between buildings and their surroundings, the work identified historical-typological consistency as one of the possible architectural quality postulates to be adopted at the meta-design stage for new rural buildings (Tassinari et al., 2007).

The indepth study of the scientific literature about the general theme of visual and landscape impact represented the basis to develop and calibrate, with specific reference to the rural built environment, methodological paths aiming at identifying and comparing design solutions (Tassinari and Torreggiani, 2006) and at evaluating the potential that different typologies of corrective solutions may have to mitigate residual impacts of existing buildings (Tassinari, 2006).

The methods consider both landscape and agricultural characteristics, in order to investigate different design variables that have significant consequences on the overall visual impact of the building. When it comes to evaluating the visual qualities of rural buildings with their surroundings, livestock farms present a particular problem because, although potentially able to enhance the visual appeal of landscapes if they are modern and well-managed, as yet they generally do not adapt or correspond well visually with landscapes. Some authors (Kaplan et al., 2006, with specific reference to Izmir province, Turkey) have noted how it is opportune, under the guidance of sound visual studies and regulations, to define correct tools for site selection (Hernández et al., 2004) and for the construction of any livestock farm through its visual adaptation to existing landscape patterns in appearance and physical structure.

On the institutional side, the problem of correctly integrating buildings into the landscape, and into rural settings in particular, is becoming more prominent within regional and landscape planning policies implemented at various levels. Different authors have described the evolution of the pertinent regulations, analysed the critical aspects of the statutory instruments currently in force, and formulated guidelines for the drafting of new policies. Just with reference to Italy and to its national academic group of rural landscape and buildings, to which the authors of the paper belong, among the most important researchers who analysed such topics the following ones can be quoted: Failla et al. (2005), Mennella and Menconi (2006), Manera et al. (1997), Leone (2007), De Montis et al. (2000), Bassi et al. (2005), and Dal Sasso and De Vita (1994). Some authors (Damm et al., 1989) have also examined the regulation and planning of farm buildings in relation to the ecological disciplines and the changes in agriculture, discussing, with reference to the German Federal Republic, the construction of farm buildings to comply with production requirements, constructional thinking and nature and landscape conservation.

A major part of the construction falls under semi-permanent category of construction, usually done with locally available cheaper building materials e.g. mud, unburnt or sundried clay bricks, adobe (Unburnt clay blocks), grass, leaves, reed, bamboo and wood etc. These materials are normally considered as inferior and substandard compared to materials used for construction of buildings in urban areas.

The approach for rural constructions need to be cost effective, flexible in choice of building materials, structurally sound and simple in construction with minimum use of non-local materials and skilled labour. Earthquake, although is one of the most hazardous natural calamities but very little attention is paid while designing and constructing dwellings by the people because provisions as per codal requirement make buildings costly which is beyond common man’s reach.

Keeping in view the limitations and technical feasibility, an approach which consists of a structurally sound skeleton system with wall paneling, flooring etc. in locally available materials and construction practice has been worked out.

The approach envisages construction with the aim to prevent loss of lives in the event of an earthquake. It however takes into account the damages to some of the building components that are liable to be repaired at post-earthquake stage without much complications or skills with local materials.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

The study on installation scarcity of solar power “effect on structural construction in rural areas” came about as a result of mismanagement of solar power by the rural people due to ignorant on the method of operation.  Finally, most of the research has been carried out on solar and its effect but not even a single research has been carried out on installation scarcity of solar power “effects on structural construction in rural areas.

1.3  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main objective of this study is to explore installation scarcity of solar power “effect on structural construction in rural areas”. Other objectives of the study include:

  1. to determine the effect of mismanagement of solar power in the rural areas.
  2. to determine the effect of solar kits on rural structures.
  3. to determine the effect of  unskilled personnel on the installation of solar power on rural buildings.

1.4  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1     What is the effect of mismanagement of solar power in rural areas?

2     What is the effect of solar kit on rural structure?

3     What is the effect of unskilled personnel on the installation of solar power on rural buildings?

1.5  STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0   Installation scarcity of solar power has no significant effect on rural structures.

H1   Installation scarcity of solar power has significant effect on rural structures.

1.6  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on installation scarcity of solar power “effects on structural construction” will be of immense benefit to the entire people of rural area. The findings will educate the citizens on the effective handling of the solar power and the purpose for which it was made. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.

1.7  SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the installation of solar power “effects on structural construction is limited to Rural areas

1.8  LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:54
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
Price:₦3,000
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