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THE EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN KATSINA ALA LOCAL GOVENRMENT AREA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 60 ::   Attributes: Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   59 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The problem of students’ under-performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has been a much discussed educational issue. In solving any problem however, it is pertinent to understand the causes of such problems. Many causes or agents have been studied as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomena of school failure or success. These causes are looked into from several perspectives including the role of the students, teachers, parents or family, school environment, society, government etc.

Notable works among these are effects of: students’ study habits (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013; Obasoro & Ayodele 2012), school environment (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Okoro, 2004), teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & Ala, 2014; Okwu & Orum, 2012), educational funding (Ugwulashi, 2012). Nonetheless, there seems to be agreement among most authors to explain failure from a multi causal perspective where the phenomenon is analysed at several levels, and where multiple variables are involved.

Gender is one of such factors also mentioned in literature to have considerable effects on students’ academic performances especially in science subjects. Gender is the range of physical, biological, mental and behavioural characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between the feminine and masculine (female and male) population. Talabi, Emiola & Ogunsakin (2003); The importance of examining performance in relation to gender is based primarily on the socio-cultural differences between girls and boys. Some vocations and professions have been regarded as men’s (engineering, arts and crafts, agriculture etc.) while others as women’s (catering, typing, nursing etc.).

In fact, parents assign task like car washing, grass cutting, bulbs fixing, climbing ladders to fix or remove things etc. to the boys, Umeoduagu (2005). On the other hand, chores like dishes washing, cooking, cleaning and so on is assigned to the girls. In a nutshell, what are regarded as complex and difficult tasks are allocated to boys whereas girls are expected to handle the relatively easy and less demanding tasks. As a result of this way of thinking the larger society has tended to see girls as a weaker sex”.

Consequently, an average Nigerian girl goes to school with these fixed stereotypes. In view of the belief that students’ gender may have impact on the students’ academic performance, this study will study the relationship between them if any. Gender differences in achievement have been examined for some time resulting in a substantial body of literature (Jegede & lyang (2000); Okeke (2000); Mordi (2002); Njoku (2007); Ogunkola (2007); Jack & Johannes (2001); Mustafa, Khan & Fabunmi (2004); Rusillo & Arias, (2004); Nenty (2010), Kyei et al, 2011; Awofala, Adeneye & Apata (2011); Dania (2014); Agbaje & Alake, (2014); Atovigba et al, (2012) etc.).

Some of these researchers pointed out that there is no significant gender difference in students’ academic achievement and retention in various subjects while others found significant difference with either the boys or the girls performing better Nneji (2011) & Amosun (2011),. So many factors contributes to the varied conclusions arrived at by all researches. Some of such factors include campaign for, understanding and implementation of gender equality in the study area. Osakwe (2001); Nigeria has been the site of numerous kingdoms and consists of several tribes with different sociocultural backgrounds and believes system, therefore, campaign, understanding and implementation of gender equality in different parts of the country varies from one place to another.

Another reason for the varied conclusion is the subject on which the gender equality is being measured on Akinsola (2007). For example, there has been global concern about gender differences in students’ performance in mathematics and some researchers have been undertaken in many parts of the globe in this respect. Although some researchers have found that there are no significant differences in male-female mathematics performance at any level, most have identified gender differences (Atovigba, 2012).

In fact, it has been the general belief in most parts of the country that male students tends to perform better compared to the female students in mathematical related or technology based subjects. Adeyemi & Ajibade (2011).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        Mathematics is generally viewed as a difficult subject to all and more so to girls. While gender choices are made more freely today, inequity remains in science and mathematics occupations, healthcare and technology. Gender disparity in mathematics performance still persists in virtually all the schools in the country. The problem with gender difference could be that the students are having low self esteem as they do not believe in themselves that they can do better no matter the type of gender. Favouritism in the aspect of the teacher could also be another problem: this is a situation whereby the teacher take sides in making sure that a particular gender understands or get the sum better that the other gender, thereby leaving behind the other gender to suffer the ignorance due to lack of attention on the part of the teacher. Finally, several research has been carried out on the effect of gender on academic performance in mathematics but there has been no research carried out on the effect of gender difference on the academic performance of mathematics students in Ala local government in Katsina.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

        The main aim of the study is to determine the effect of gender difference on the academic performance of mathematics students. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. to compare the performance of male students to female students in mathematics
  2. to determine the difference in students interest in mathematics based on gender
  3. to determine the difference in the rate of assimilation among male and female mathematics students in Katsina Ala LG.A
    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS               
  1. What is the difference in performance between the male students and female students in mathematics?
  2. What is the difference in students’ interest in mathematics based on gender?
  3. What is the difference in the rate of assimilation among male and female mathematics students in Katsina Ala L.G.A?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0:    there is no significant difference in the academic performance of students in mathematics based on gender.

H1:         there is significant difference in the academic performance of students in mathematics based on gender.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY      

        The study on the effect of differences on the academic performance of mathematics students will be of immense benefit to the entire Katsina state in the sense that it enable the government to place supervision team in all the schools as to monitor the teacher on how they carry out their jobs. The study will also enable the teachers to carry everybody along whether male or female, encouraging them to help them bring out the best in them. The students will through this study be made known that they can do it, and that no gender is better than the other, thereby putting aside low self esteem. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

        The study on the effect of gender difference on the academic performance of mathematics students is limited to Katsina state.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Effect      A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Gender    The state of being male or female 

Difference       A point or way in which people or things are dissimilar.

 

Academic Performance  Is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. 

Students         Is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:60
Attribute:Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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