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Project Topic:

CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE AND CULTURAL IMPERIALISM

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 67 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   60 people found this useful

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ABSTRACT

The survey seeks to examine the influx of foreign opinion into our society via cable television. The imperialism implication of cultural invasion arising there from. The topic cable television and cultural imperialism a study of viewership pattern in Port Harcourt is therefore aimed at drawing the attention of National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) among others to ensure compliance of 40% local programme content by cable films and broadcast media. This may shook spheres of cultural invasion as contain in degree 38 of 1992 constitution which governs establishment of NBC. The researcher used a survey method and divided Port Harcourt into zones and they are: the study has a sample size of 250 respondents but questionnaires were distributed 300, which the study reveals that those exist a clustered creativity of viewership pattern; it also shows that many people now have cable TV in their houses, compound, offices or fashion, comedy, sport (football) on cable to local TV. Agree to America/Europe is better than African/Nigeria calls for check but NBC by ensuring 40% local programme content.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cable television is a technological discovery for reception of distant television broadcast signals. It involved when dwellers in large cities with establish TV station enjoyed good receptions to the exclusion of viewers who lived father away who got blurred distorted signals or visuals.

For instance, signals from the RSTV Edo state may not be as clear as in Port Harcourt where the station’s transmitting is sited towards correcting the imbalance in viewer’s signals, there was improvement on TV antenna and placement of additional wire or cable on rooftops in an attempt to get interference proof picture.

In 1940(s), a significant break through was made in getting clear, interference free signals from distant stations. That was achieved by laying a hilltop high antenna above the average terrian from which distant signals are transmitted by cables directly into home TV receivers. This automatically marked the advent of cable TV also known as community antenna TV-CATV. Receivers would pay per view and thus marked the birth of cable TV.

The very first TV signal in Nigeria was sent from a transmitter sited at MAPO-HALL, Ibadan, Nigeria in 1959 that also recorded the first of its kind in African. However, it was Aihaji Bawa Garuba, ABG who started cable TV satellite. Industry in Kaduna in 1984 Garuba who spread his tentacles to Rivers in 1991 also became the first to introduce such company in the state. His primary goal was to downlink satellite TV signals from transmitters. The signals available include cable news network, CNN, Canal France, CFL, Euro-sport, ASPEN and channel zero inter-Allia.

Garuba’s ABG through technical partnership has however metamorphosed into a new brand, trend company Ltd, CTL. The ABG now CTL, is thus the pioneer cable TV business in Rivers. Satnet, now Ultima, came 1993, multichoice, 1994 and so was Disc engineering. At inception signal, reception was so uncontrolled and that gave rise to takes, piracy an involvement of quacks. The challenge this posed to the pioneer ABG was not raking in return commensurate with the proliferation of its reception antennas scatted all, over Port Harcourt metropolis. Dealing with the challenge consequently gave birth to the application of decoders to control the distribution of signals only to genuine financially committed clients. The DECODER is an electronic device that controls and stabilizes signals so that clients enjoy stable, selected channels as well as interpreted signals.

The study indicated that until date, residents are till being able to receive signals on mere erection of the ABG foundation kind of antennas without dishes and decoders, but such option is fraught with inevitable distortion of signals. Largely, counterfeiting has encouraged proliferation of cable TV even in the most unexpected quarters.

Under the application of decoder for cable TV use, the service provider, like the CTL, has to install a chain of devices to enable the system meet customers satisfaction of gaining all, the associated benefits. The basic operational component include microwave transmitter, which must be in place before transmission can be successful. All necessary components required at the consumer end include:

  1. BASKET: Net/reflection, a small dish involving a microprocessor, adaptor and modulator.
  2. DISH: A basin like, curvature that gathers or concentrates signals at a point for redistribution. This is mostly preferred by corporate end users wishing to redistribute signals to multiple receivers within close quarters.
  3. CO-AXIAL CABLE: carries signals to home receivers TV sets.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In various cultures and climes, governments the world over have found Radio/TV as veritable media to impact the life of the people. They act out, broadcast people participating in different human endeavours, informing, educating or entertaining.

Cable TV thus influences or changes culture, sometimes in negative tones. Between the developed and the technologically backward world, it has created the kind of imperialism where the strong nation extends dominance in tacitly controlling the politics, culture, economics and social lives of the target weaker nation through the censored information they share to the outside world as well as their portrayals of that outside world.

Portrayals on cable TV have beamed Africa in bad light while showcasing Europe as better such that today, Nigerians would prefer hoisting the American flag in Nigeria while many would treat their motherland Nigerian flag disdain. They prefer English language in village meetings to their native dialects. We have been told or taught that Africa’s past is darkness and darkness cannot be a subject for historical investigation-Prof. Trevor (1963) and cable TV poses to Africa, Nigeria in this instance, therefore calls for commitment to effectives checks and controls to regulate what is transmitted through the cable to viewers as well as recognizing with a view to correct it, the problems militating against performance by local TV organizations in over half a century of TV broadcasting and over 15m years of cable TV satellite system patronage.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

By its design and expectations, this study aims at discovering to what extent the population under study is exposed to the intended broadcast signals.

It tends to identify the rationable behind the ever increasing and dependence on foreign TV channels. It further attempt to reveal the programmes and cable channels that appeals most to viewers and not in the least seeking to identify the common behaviourial pattern viewers imbibe from exposure to cable TV and to what extent they are influenced.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

From the indication in 1.3 above, this research aims to investigate the following questions.

  1. Do viewing media content appeals to consumers of cable TV?
  2. What behavioural aspects of characters do viewers emulate from dominant culture?
  3. Do viewers actually adopt the characters portrayed in cable TV channels?
  4. What is the viewership level of cable TV on a weekly, yearly basis?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research is gainful when viewed against the backdrop of cultural imperialism it impacts on viewers by excessive exposure to foreign cultures and opinions through cable TV. Knowing to what extent the impact has been or would assist in knowing the extent of erosion of the local culture and values in Nigeria, Rivers in particular.

The study is significant in stimulating key stakeholders, particularly regulators as the National Broadcasting Commission, NBC, to reassess and strengthen the framework for controlling the broadcast content beamed on most foreign cable channel on Television.

There is the strong feeling that the study would ventilate the desirability for effective electronic organs for selecting and permitting that will not necessarily be coherent with the local culture but must be certifies to add positive value towards enriching the culture.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY

Although the research looks at the larger Nigeria as its universe of study, the constraint of time and limited human and material resources involved compelled the researcher to scope the work to a study group within the Port Harcourt metropolis. Within the Port Harcourt area, the challenge of epileptic power supply meant that the quarters to find those mostly regularly exposed to cable TV viewing and not private viewers, majority of who hardly have power supply to watch. The researcher rather concentrated on regularly visiting viewing centers to extract data on the questionnaires.

It must be mentioned that a noticeably widespread apathy to participation in responding to questionnaires. That caused an avoidable delay in sharing and retrieving the questionnaires, which automatically translates to extended time in completion of the final work.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

On this research, there were series of hindrances, which impeded the normal conduct of going about the research. Among there are: the weather was not very convenience for the research since it rains to hinder movement from one place to another for injury.

Another fact was cost of transportation, this is another set back from getting to source for materials and for collection of data. Finance is the greatest inimical factor which almost render the project research to fulfill attempt, another critical factor which affects the research is time, allowable is being too short and make material presented to be raw material which are not properly prepared because of time limit.

Finally on this a more weakening and critical aspect of research were lack of enough and relevant research materials availability, but with all amount of determination and courage I have been able to come out with something comprehensive.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

For the purpose of this research, the following key working words are here defined in the context of their significance to the project.

TELEVISION: A terminal or home receiver providing audio and visual communication.

CABLE: A particular type of wire sending audio visual signals to receiver.

BROADCASTING: The act of sending radio/TV messages through electromagnetic waves.

ANTENNA: Convert electronic current into electromagnetic wave.

DISH: Bain like device that helps to receive, concentrates widespread signals.

SATELLITE: High tech mechanism for receiving signals from gadgets placed in space.

CNN: Cable News Network, an example of a channel with decoded signals, CNN in USA.

CFI: Canal France International, France’s equivalent of the BBC, a cable network.

DECODER: A mechanism that interprets cable broadcast signals into those hooked to a satellite TV.

IMPERIALISM: A practice or policy by which a super power nation extends exercise control over or forces its values on a weaker nation through a one sided information flow from the stronger nation using superiority in high tech    information satellite TV network.

CULTURE: Is the way of life of the people. Within a geographical region by ways of eating, dressing and their norms and value as well as attitude.

VIEWER: A person passionate about, watching cable TV.

VIEWERSHIP: The totality of viewers over a given place and time frame.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:67
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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