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Project Topic:

AN ASSESSMENT OF NEWSPAPER COVERAGE ON CORRUPTION CAUSES IN NIGERIA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 82 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   177 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Corruption is a global phenomenon that is attracting global reactions. Africa and the World group (AFRICAW) 2012 asserted that corruption is perhaps the most important factor that is impeding the accelerated socioeconomic transformation of developing or less developing countries (LDCs) of the world, and that it is in fact, recognized by development scholars that the level of reduction in corruption has a very direct link to the level of economic development of nations in the world. To curb the negative effects of corruption on economic and sustainable development requires conscious efforts and attention. The word corruption simply means the deviation from what is right, ideal or correct. According to the Macmillian dictionary, corruption is defined as dishonest or illegal behaviour by officials or people in positions of power, especially when they accept money in exchange for doing things for someone. It is the departure from what is lawfully acceptable. Corruption is the act of changing or of being changed for the worse. Lipset and Lenz (2000) in their definition opined corruption as efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means; private gain at public expense; or a misuse of public power for private benefit. Sen (1999) viewed corruption or corrupt behavior as that which involves the violation of established rules for personal gain and profit.

        Corruption cut across all sectors of the economy as it is evidence in every sphere of the nation be it government/public sectors, unions, corporate or non-governmental organizations. Corruption could be political, electoral, bureaucratical, institutional or cultural. Corruption take different forms which include accepting and giving bribery, theft, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, blackmailing, favouritism, nepotism, accepting undue advantage, using influence or paying for it, abusing power, documents forgery, exploiting conflicting interests, misappropriation of funds even if they were legally obtained. Oyinola (2011) stated that corruption is found in the award of contracts, promotion of staff, dispensation of justice, and misuse of public offices, positions, and privileges, embezzlement of public funds, public books, publications, documents, valuable security, and accounts. The reasons for the persistence of corruption in Nigeria has been attributed to factors such as obsession with materialism, compulsion for a shortcut to affluence, glorification and approbation of ill-gotten wealth by the general public (Ndiulor, 1999 cited in Dike, 2008). Dike (2008) asserted that lack of ethical standards throughout the agencies of government and business organizations in Nigeria is a serious drawback.

        The issue of ethics in public sector and in private life encompasses a broad range, including a stress on obedience to authority, on the necessity of logic in moral reasoning, and on the necessity of putting moral judgement into practice (Bowman 1991 cited in Dike, 2008). Dike however holds the view that, many officeholders in Nigeria whether appointed or elected do not have clear conceptions of the ethical demands of their position; even as corrupt practices are going off the roof, little attention, if any, is being given to this ideal. Olusheye (2013) stated that the widespread corruption in Nigeria is traceable to the increasing wave of covetousness, greed, inordinate ambition, materialism, the get-rich-quick-syndrome of the post-independence era, nationwide poverty, inadequate social security, corrupt/extravagant political system being operated and the inefficient socio-economic structures and systems put in place by our governments to alleviate the rampant abject poverty and combat the increasing wave of corrupt practices.

        In Social sphere, corruption leads to discouragement of people to work together for the common good; frustration and general apathy among the public result in a weak civil society; demanding and paying bribes becomes the tradition; social inequality and widened gap between the rich and poor; civil strive, increased poverty and lack of basic needs like food, water and drugs; jealousy, hatred and insecurity (Transparency Ethiopia, 2013). Consequences of corruption that are acknowledged according to Floristeanu (2010) include low quality services, public resource embezzlement, increase in the degree of population poverty and suffering, high social costs, abuse spreading, property impairment, decrease in public income, inefficient allotment and faulty public resources management. Poor reward system and greed also contributed to the menace of corruption. Dike (2008) stated that Nigeria’s reward system is perhaps the poorest in the world as Nigeria is a society where national priorities are turned upside down, hard work is not rewarded, but rogues are often glorified.

        As rightly stated by Olagunju (2012) that corruption is indeed the bane of any nation; its malady cut across every religious denomination and political system and it affects both young and old, man and woman alike. Olagunju also likened it to cancer that contaminates all strata of the socio-political and economic structure of any society and its malignant nature is difficult to treat. Corruption indeed impedes economic growth, generates inequities and erodes government credibility and the efficient functioning of state institutions (Floristeanu, 2010). Corruption is often responsible for increased costs of goods and services, the funneling of scarce public resources to uneconomic high profile projects at the expense of the much needed projects such as schools, hospitals and roads, or the supply of potable water, diversion and misallocation of resources, conversion of public wealth to private and personal property, inflation, imbalanced economic development, weakling work ethics and professionalism, hindrance of the development of fair in market structures and unhealthy competition there by deterring competition (Transparency Ethiopia, 2013).

        Development projects are often made unnecessarily complex in Nigeria to justify the corrupt and huge expense on it (Dike, 2008). Because of the fact that corruption affects public projects, that it determines significant loss to education, health and poverty prevention budgets, in both underdeveloped and developed countries, corruption is considered to be an important obstacle in the way of sustainable development (Floristeanu, 2010). A lack of action can result into state capture by private interest groups, with harmful effects on the state, its economy and society, because the rules of the game can be fundamentally distorted for good, in the favor of some privileged individuals (Anderson and Gray, 2006). The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) released by the Transparency International for the year 2012 suggests that levels of bribery, abuse of power and secret dealings are still perceived to be very high in most countries (Shruti, 2012).

        The media and Civil Society groups have been identified as the two very important weapons to fight the scourge of corruption worldwide and the media itself is considered the strongest force in shaping public opinion on issues (AFRICAW - Africa and the World, 2012; WSCIJ, 2013). The World Anti-corruption Watchdog, the Transparency International, reported in its recent anti-corruption handbook that a free and independent media is one of the principal vehicles for informing the public about corrupt activity (AFRICAW, 2012). AFRICAW group stated that the Transparency International noted that by investigating and reporting on corruption, the media provides an important counterpoint to the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, shedding light on the wrongdoings of public office holders and corporate executives alike. The media can channel its whistle-blowing function and ability to influence policies and government action to in turn bring about the much-needed development and good governance (WSCIJ, 2013).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

It is important to note that in contemporary times, the attention to corruption has shifted from the pulpits’ and philosophers’ arenas to that of the media’s. Anderson (2002) reported that media coverage of corruption in sectors of a nation’s economy is indicative of the pervasiveness of the cancer in such sectors and can go a long way in curbing the spread. For example, the extensive media coverage of corruption scandals in Italy and Germany involving high-ranking politicians (Giglioli 1996, Heidenheimer 2000, Lashmar 2001) resulted in the very legitimacy of the political parties and the political system as a whole being shaken and the conviction of several high-level politicians on bribery charges respectively.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to carry out an assessment of newspaper coverage on corruption causes in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. to determine the relationship between newspaper coverage and the rate of corruption in Nigeria
  2. to determine the extent to which newspaper coverage has affected the corruption index in Nigeria
  3. to investigate on the factors affecting newspaper coverage in Nigeria
  4. to determine the root causes of corruption in Nigeria and the way forward

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

  1. What is the relationship between newspaper coverage and the rate of corruption in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent does newspaper coverage affect the corruption index in Nigeria?
  3. What are the factors affecting newspaper coverage in Nigeria?
  4. What are the root causes of corruption in Nigeria and the way forward?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: there is no significant relationship between newspaper coverage and the rate of corruption in Nigeria

H1: there is a significant relationship between newspaper coverage and the rate of corruption in Nigeria

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on an assessment of newspaper coverage on corruption causes in Nigeria will be of immense benefit the media sector, the government (local, state and federal) in such a way that it will educate the media houses on the need for effective and efficiency in coverage of corruption in Nigeria. The study will serve as a repository of information for other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

This study intends to find out the extent to which Nigerian newspapers had covered corruption issues in all sectors of the nation over a period of 5 years.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.9 DFINITION OF TERMS

Press: It refers to the fourth estate of the realm vested with the responsibility to disseminate information, entertain, and educate members of a society.

Freedom of Information: It refers to unlimited liberty, outspokenness, unhampered boldness. Freedom is the degree of unlimited access to information, which facilitates the performance of journalistic duties.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:82
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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