Our Archives

Call 08068929770 or 08122972656 for any enquiries.

Project Topic:

RECOVERY OF CAUSTIC SODA FROM WELDERS WASTE

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 40 ::   Attributes: experiment, abstract, references ::   308 people found this useful

Project Body:

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The recovery processes and renewal of waste product into useful products has increased overtime in Nigeria.

According to (World Bank, 2003) stated that proper management of solid waste is critical to the health and well-being of urban residents. It is evident that the rate of growth of hazards is most common in the African countries than the European countries because of poor management of waste.

According to (Environment Agency, 1999) stated that the United Kingdom (UK) Environment Agency classifies waste as either controlled waste or non-controlled waste. Controlled waste includes waste generated from households (municipal solid waste), commercial and industrial organizations and from construction and demolition. Non-controlled waste includes waste generated from agriculture, mines and quarries and from dredging operations. At all times, human activities have generated waste in various forms, that is, in gaseous (abattoirs), liquid and solid. These wastes have often been discarded because they were all considered as negative value goods. The more prevalent method of disposal of these wastes have been to first collect them from their source and then burn them in a landfill site or throw them in the surrounding deep erosion gullies (Ogwueleka, 2009). However, the steady increase of landfill site, deposition in the gullies, and waste generally has caused a lot of havoc to the potable water being extracted from downstream and ground water. Currently, the emergence and development of new public environmental consciousness have created a strong negative attitude toward landfill and deposition into gullies. In Nigeria the national and state regulation to protect the environment have increased the cost of developing new landfill and deposition in the gullies, also sitting has become increasingly difficult because the public oppose having such facilities nearby (Ogwueleka, 2009). Solid waste management has become a major concern in developing countries, like Nigeria.

According to (Otti, 2011) stated that the ideal way to improve the situation would be, to reduce the generation of waste. But contrarily, this goes against the people’s will to preserve their life style. The study wishes to examine the recovery of some products from waste using the recovery of caustic soda as the case study.

Calcium carbide is produced industrially in an electric arc furnace from a mixture of lime and coke at approximately 2000°C. This method has not changed since its invention in 1888.

CaO + 3 C → CaC2 + CO → (1)

Calcium carbide sludge is generated during the process of reaction between calcium carbide and water in the production of acetylene for welding purposes. The reaction of calcium carbide with water was discovered by Friedrich Wohler in 1962

CaC2 +2H2O → C2H2 +Ca (OH)2 → (2)

This reaction is the basis for industrial manufacture of acetylene. The sludge has a pH of 12.2 and contains Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn ions (Bogner et al., 2002).

No sludge is a waste; all can be used judiciously as per its specification

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The Nigerian Automobile Technicians Association (NATA) with average membership of twenty-five thousand panel beaters are scattered all over the country. Each panel beater produces an average of 30 kg of carbide sludge daily. The sludge generated by this activity (industry) has accumulated over the years. The sludge are dumped indiscriminately resulting in environmental problems and health hazard such as adverse effects on the fertility of land, as these wastes are deficient in plant nutrients, drainage problems, contamination of water resources. It also causes air pollution as the dry powder becomes air borne on windy days, wastage of valuable resources of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) and handling and disposal problem (World Bank, 2003) Calcium salts currently being marketed derive their calcium from some source which include limestone other than hydrated carbide lime. This is due in large part to the impurities in the hydrated carbide lime, such as metals, slag, minerals and carbon which come from the coal, coke and limestone used in the calcium carbide manufacturing process.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is carryout a recovery process of caustic soda from welders waste. Other specific objectives of the research work include:

  1. To examine the chemical and physical properties of caustic soda
  2. To investigate on the factors affecting the production of caustic soda
  3. To examine the effect of temperature on the production of slake lime
  4. To proffer solution to above stated problems

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for study include:

  1. What are the chemical and physical properties of caustic soda?
  2. What are the factors affecting the production of caustic soda?
  3. Does  temperature affect the production of slake lime

1.5 ORGANISATION OF STUDY

The study will be group into five chapters, chapter one of the research work will include the study background, the problem statement, the objectives of the research, the research questions, the significance of study and the scope of the study

1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The collected sludge samples were dried in the oven at 105°C for 1 h and then sieved with a fine mesh sieve of 80 µm. Representative samples were dissolved in the ratio of 1: 100; 1: 200; 1: 300; 1: 400; metal content of the sludge is still within the acceptable limit for discharge into the environment by FME (formally FEPA, 1992) standard

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study will be of immense benefit the federal government of Nigeria and her citizens, the study will also be of great importance to other African countries as it will discuss the preparation of caustic soda from welder’s waste. The study will also discuss the factors affecting the production processes. Finally the study will be of immense benefit to other research students that wishes to carryout similar research on the above topic.

 

 

Project Department:

MORE INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY FREE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS AND RESEARCH MATERIALS


Get The Complete Project »

Instantly Share this Project On Social Media:

CLOSELY RELATED INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY FREE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS AND RESEARCH MATERIALS

production of mosquitoes repellants INSECTICIDES (MOSQUITO COIL) using orange peels (cestrum)

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 52 ::   Attributes: experiment  ::   455 engagements

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 INSECTICIDES (General Overview) Insecticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing insects[1]. It is well known fact that many protozoal bacteria ...Continue reading »

EXTRACTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-MICROBIAL SCREENING OF WHITE STAR APPLE Crysophyllum albidum SEED OIL

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 55 ::   Attributes: Data Analysis  ::   1023 engagements

ABSTRACT Crysophylum albidum oil was extracted from its seed. The percentage yield was 2.56%. The characterization of the oil showed showed that the refractive index is 1.487, peroxide value is 45.4m...Continue reading »

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF FLOWER AND STALK OF Mangifera indica (opioro mango)

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 60 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   485 engagements

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Origin: Mango (Mangifera indica) (Opioro) is a native to Southern Asia especially Burma and Eastern India. It is a member of cashew family (Anacardiacee) on of the mos...Continue reading »

ASSESSMENT OF AMBIENT AIR WITHIN THE VICINITY OF A CHARCOAL PRODUCTION SITE IN AMUKPE SAPELE, DELTA STATE

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 70 ::   Attributes: experiment

ABSTRACT Air quality continues to be among the top environmental concerns in Nigeria.In nigeria, where majority of the rural population uses charcoal, very little is known about the impacts of the li...Continue reading »

PRODUCTION OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA (Maihot esculanta) AND ITS CROSS LINKED DERIVATIVES

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: Data Analysis

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Starch can be obtained from cassava, sorghum, maize, sago and potatoes. But this project focused on the production of starch from cassava. Starch can be cross-linked a...Continue reading »

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SEED AND COAT OF Citrus sinensis

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: Data Analysis

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The Citrus sinensis popularly known as sweet orange seed in Igbo of Nigeria is of the Rutaceae family. The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe after thor...Continue reading »

What are you looking for today?

TESTIMONIALS:

  • 1. Rita Eze from abia state university said "thank you so much for your sincerity; i will tell my friends about you guys.".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 2. JULIET from UNIMAID said "I THANK YOU GUYS FOR BEING HONEST.....I WILL TELL MY FRIENDS ABOUT YOU GUYS. THANKX SO MUCH".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 3. Lilian Terdoo from BSU said "i have nothing to say but thanx for being honest. i appreciate u guys...".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 4. Demien Johnson from UNN said "Uniprojectmaterials is a blessing to researchers. my job was eased up by you guys. your jobs have good quality and was delivered on time to me. Thanks a million times".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 5. Patience from unilag said "i was having difficulties handling my dissertation of 12000 words. until i stumbled on uniprojectmaterials, my work was ready in three days with high quality write up and excellent data analysis, i will tell all my friends about u guys. Mr Donald is a very nice person, he should be in charge of the phone. he attended to me very well. God bless. ".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 6. James Ike from College of Education, Gindiri said "Great delivery. Una dey try wella!!!".
    Rating: Excellent

Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:40
Attribute:experiment, abstract, references
Price:₦3,000
Get The Complete Project »

Best Selling Projects

Our Archives