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Project Topic:

THE EFFECT OF RADIATION ON HUMAN BODY

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 67 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   84 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Human exposure to radiation from natural sources is an unending and unpreventable phenomenon on earth. Human exposure to natural radiation exceeds that from all man-made sources (including: medical, weapons testing and nuclear technologies) put together. The two main contributors to natural radiation exposures are: high-speed cosmic ray particles incidents in the earth’s atmosphere and the primordial radionuclides present in the Earth’s crust which are present everywhere, including the human body. Some exposure to natural radiation sources is modified by human activities. Examples are: natural radionuclides released into the environment in mineral processing and use phosphate fertilizer processing, fossil fuel combustion and quarry activity, causing enhanced natural radiation exposures. Some people are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radiation at their places of work. Such workers include underground miners, some workers involved in mineral processing and aircraft flight crews (UNSCEAR-B, 2000).

        The cosmic rays that originate from outer space, which is continuously bombarding the atmosphere, consist of a nucleonic component (98%) and electrons which account for the remaining 2% (Ghoshal, 2007). At ground level, the dominant component of the cosmic-ray field consists of muons with energies mostly between 1 and 20Gev. These contribute to about 80% of the absorbed dose in the air from directly ionizing radiation. The passengers and crews of aircrafts are subjected to cosmic radiation at a much higher rate than the rates at the ground level. This depends on the altitude, latitude, longitude and duration of the flight.

        External exposure outdoors arises from terrestrial radionuclides present in trace levels in all soil types. Radiation emitted by these radionuclides within 15-30cm of the topsoil reach the earth surface (Farai and Vincent, 2006). Only those radionuclides with half-lives comparable to the age of the earth, and their decay products, exist in significant quantities in these materials. The estimation of exposure to radiation is an important goal of regulatory authorities and radiation protection scientists. In public health management of radiation emergencies, one of the essential components of integrated assessment is to quickly and accurately assess and categorize the exposure. Thus knowledge of the background radiation level is of paramount importance (UNSCEAR-A, 2000 and DREK et al, 2010).

        Radioactive materials, either particles or gases, may be transported across great distances by local and large-scale air movement. The absorbed dose rate in air indoors has 1-been measured extensively. The values ranged from 20 to 190nGyh with a population 1-weighed at an average of about 80nGyh. One of the products of the heavy radionuclides occurring naturally is radon gas which contributes to the high amounts of potentially lethal doses and it has been reported to be the cause of the great majority of lung cancer death and the risk of lung cancer from exposure to radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all other causes (Maria et al, 2010 and Don, 2010).

        Farai and Vincent (2006) measured the outdoor radiation levels in Nigeria using Thermo luminescent Dosimetry and reported that the equivalent dose due to outdoor exposure in the city ranged from 0.19 to 1.64 mSv/yr and a mean of 0.45mSv/yr and the mean dose of extra terrestrial radiation was estimated to be 0.18mSv/yr in the city. A nationwide survey conducted by Fari and Jibri (2000) of terrestrial radiation, using the technique of in-situ gamma spectrometry reported that the mean annual effective dose equivalent is 0.27mSv/yr. Man is exposed to radiation with or without his consent. The radiation can cause injuries and clinical symptoms; which may include a chromosomal transformation, cancer induction, free radical formation, bone necroses and radiation catractogenesis (Norman, 2008). The injuries and clinical symptoms could be caused at both high doses and prolonged low dose exposure. Because of the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, the practice has been to monitor and assess the levels of exposure and keep one’s exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable (also known as the ALARA principle)

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Radiation is one of the major problems faced by most people in Nigeria knowingly and unknowingly especially the pregnant women and advanced adults. The issue of child deformity and cancer may be the major case as regards to radiation. Several measure has been put in place by the federal government of Nigeria the control this issue. Secondly there have been several studies on radiation but not even a single study has been carried out on the effect of radiation on human body in Nigeria.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to determine the effect of radiation on human body. Other specific objectives of study are:

  1. to determine the radiation effects on cancer survivors
  2. to examine whether there are treatments and other preventive measure for the effect of radiation on human body
  3. to determine the relationship between radiation and social wellbeing in Nigeria
  4. to determine the effect of radiation on the rate of deformity among children in Nigeria

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

  1. What are the radiation effects on cancer survivors?
  2. Are there treatments and other preventive measure for the effect of radiation on human body?
  3. What is the relationship between radiation and social wellbeing in Nigeria?
  4. What is the effect of radiation on the rate of deformity among children in Nigeria?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1

H0: radiation has no significant effect on human body

H1: radiation has significant effect on human body

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study will be of immense benefit to hospitals and other medical centers in Nigeria because the study will be able to determine the effect of radiation on human body. The study will also show the various preventive measure needed to control the effect of radiation on human body. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the effect of radiation on human body will cover on radiation, the types of radiation and the effect of radiation on human body from 2000-2017

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Radiation: the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles which cause ionization.

Cancer: A disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and destroy body tissue.

Deformity: a deformed part, especially of the body; a malformation.

X-ray: X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:67
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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