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Project Topic:

BIOSORPTION OF ZINC (II) OXIDE FROM ITS SOLUTION USING AVOCADO LEAVES

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 54 ::   Attributes: EXPERIMENT AND DATA ANALYSIS ::   34 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has considerable customary attention due to its unique morphology and dimension-dependent optoelectronic properties (Nakayama, 2007). It has special properties, such as high chemical activity, and novel optical, mechanical, electromagnetic, thermodynamic and electrodynamic properties, and displays a wide spectrum of applications, including gaseous sensors, fluorescent materials, photocatalysts, and additives in many industrial products (Tomchenko, A.A, 2011).

Furthermore, ZnO is an environmentally friendly material, which is desirable especially for bio-applications, such as bio-imaging and cancer detection (Wu, 2007). Several physical and chemical methods have been developed to obtain ZnO micro- and nanoparticles with different shapes. Various strategies such as chemical vapor deposition, electrochemical deposition, hydrothermal solution synthesis, and sol-gel processing  have been developed for the synthesis of ZnO nano materials (Bae, S.Y, 2004).

The sol-gel process and hydrothermal synthesis have proved to be relatively simple methods for synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and excellent crystallinity  (Chang, P.C., 2004). However, the organic materials utilized in the process make controlling of aggregation and large-scale production quite impossible. Various nanostructures in terms of shape and size have been found to hold novel applications depending upon on their morphologies and also the precursors.

On the other hand Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an evergreen subtropical tree with a leaf life span of 10 to 12 months (Whiley and Schaffer, 2004). In subtropical southern California, trees exhibit two vegetative flushes, one in early spring and one in summer (Robinson et al., 2004). Most of the leaves produced in a growing season senesce and abscise during the subsequent year is spring vegetative flush while flowering and fruit set are occurring (Koo and Young, 2007). As leaves senesce, they gradually lose their photosynthetic capacity (Turgeon, 2009), and therefore decline in their ability to supply carbon for vegetative and reproductive growth. It is to this regard that the study desire to examine the biosorption of zinc (ii) oxide from its solution using avocado leaves 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Zinc (ii) oxide can be harmful if inhaled. There have been so many failed approaches to the removal of zinc (ii) oxide from its solution. The study will try to use avocado leaves to remove zinc (ii) oxide from its solution.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine the biosorption of zinc (ii) oxide from its solution using avocado leaves. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. to prepare avocardo leaves to serve as absorbent for zinc (ii) oxide
  2. to examine the surface characterization of avocado leaves
  3. to determine the effect of the pH level of the fluid in the avocado leaves on zinc (ii) oxide biosorption kinetics
  4. to determine the chemical properties of zinc (ii) oxide

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

  1. What are the preparation processes of avocardo leaves to serve as absorbent for zinc (ii) oxide?
  2. What is the surface characterization of avocado leaves?
  3. What is the effect of the pH level of the fluid in the avocado leaves on zinc (ii) oxide biosorption kinetics?
  4. What are the chemical properties of zinc (ii) oxide?

1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The synthesis of Zinc (ii) oxide can be well accomplished by two approaches. Firstly, by “Bottom Up” method where small building blocks are produced and assembled into larger structures where the main controlling parameters are morphology, crystallinity, particle size, and chemical composition. Examples: chemical synthesis, laser trapping, self-assembly, colloidal aggregation, etc and secondly, by “Top Down” method where large objects are modified to give smaller features.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the biosorption of zinc (ii) oxide from its solution using avocado leaves will of immense benefit to the chemistry students in the sense that the study will educate the students and other researchers on how to absorb zinc (ii) oxide from its solution using avocado leaves. The study will also be able to determine the chemical properties of both zinc (ii) oxide and avocado leaves. The study will discuss on the factors affecting the biosoption of zinc (ii) oxide in its solution. The study will also serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the biosorption of zinc (ii) oxide from its solution using avocado leaves will only focus only on the processes on how to use the avocado leaves to absorb zinc (ii) oxide from its solution.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Biosorption: In accordance to the study biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in zinc (ii) oxide solution which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure.

Zinc (ii) oxide: ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water, and it is widely used as an additive in numerous materials and products including rubbers, plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, lubricants, paints, ointments, adhesives, sealants, pigments, foods, batteries,  ferrites, fire retardants, and first-aid tapes.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:54
Attribute:EXPERIMENT AND DATA ANALYSIS
Price:₦3,000
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