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INVESTIGATION ON FRESH WATER ALGAE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR BIOFUEL IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 57 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   129 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Global consumption of crude oil is predicted to grow continuously. This explains why despite improvements in the recovery of traditional fossil fuels, more attention needs to be paid to the search for clean and viable alternative renewable energy resources with the prospect of minimizing increases in atmospheric CO2 by recycling carbon from the atmosphere (Smith et al., 2010; Liu, 2014). Algae are a large and highly diverse group of organisms which can be found in almost all ecosystems (Sturm et al. 2012). Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel production and different applications, such as wastewater purification, biogas production, and extraction of value added compounds for food and pharmaceutical products (Lawton et al., 2013). An important aspect of biodiesel production is the selection of a suitable algal species. Selected strains should have two important key characteristics: high biomass productivity as well as adaptation to regional climatic conditions (Tumuluru et al., 2012). Many microalgae have the ability to produce amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) of up to 50% dry cell weight as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions (Hillebrand, 1983). Recent studies prove that algae have inherent advantageous qualities like rapid biomass formation, high lipid content, tolerance for extreme environments, and thus they have generated significantly increased interest as potential feedstocks for biodiesel. One of the potential advantages in the development and utilization of algae-derived biofuels is the greater production efficiency of the required oils compared to other fuel crops. A suitable microalgae candidate for biodiesel production requires not only high lipid productivity, but also suitable fatty acid (FA) composition, as this composition can significantly influence biodiesel fuel properties such as kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, cetane number (CN), cloud point, iodine value (IV), long-chain saturated factor (LCFF) and Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP). However, inadequacies in research and development, policies and strategies for all the stages of biofuel production chain are still a limiting factor to the full exploitation of algal bioresources.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problem of green house effect is one of the most discussed issues in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria. In an attempt to lower the greenhouse effect various alternative have been looked into. The study desires to know whether the freshwater algae will have the required potentials to serve as an alternative for biofuel production. Secondly there have been series of studies on algae but not even a single study has been carried out on an investigation on freshwater algae and its potential for biofuel in Sokoto State

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to carry out an investigation on fresh water algae and its potential for biofuel in Sokoto metropolis. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. to determine the use of fresh water algae in the production of biofuel in Sokoto State
  2. to examine the level of awareness of the potential of fresh water algae in Sokoto metropolis
  3. to investigate on the factors affecting the availability of fresh water algae in Sokoto metropolis
  4. to proffer solution to the above statd problems

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

  1. What is the use of fresh water algae in the production of biofuel in Sokoto State?
  2. What is the level of awareness of the potential of fresh water algae in Sokoto metropolis?
  3. What are the factors affecting the availability of fresh water algae in Sokoto metropolis?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1

H0: the fresh water algae do not have good quality attributes 

H1: the fresh water algae have good quality attributes 

Hypothesis 2

H0: the elemental composition of freshwater is bad

H1: the elemental composition of freshwater is good

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study will be of immense benefit to the NNPC, the government (local, State and Federal) in the sense that the study will discuss all the quality attributes and elemental composition of freshwater. The study will discuss the factors affecting the use of fresh water algae as biofuel and proffer solution to the challenges faced in biofuel production. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study is limited to Sokoto State alone. The study will however cover on freshwater algae and its potential for biofuel the quality attributes, elemental composition of freshwater, and the factors affecting the use of fresh water algae as biofuel.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Algae: Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, thus polyphyletic

Biofuel: a fuel derived immediately from freshwater algae.

Freshwater: Fresh water is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:57
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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