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MENACE CAUSED BY HUMAN TRAFFICKING (A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE)

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 62 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   29 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Human trafficking can best be described as a global problem and a modern form of slavery. Women and children are the key target groups because of their unequal socio economic status and their lack of awareness of their legal rights (Onyejekwe, 2005). ILO (2008) estimates indicates, that women and girls make up 98 percent of the overwhelming majority of those trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

Several factors have been explored as the root causes of human trafficking. These include family disintegration (Lazouri, 2003); gender inequality, Hughes, 1999; Bamgbose, 2005; feminization of poverty, (Aina, 1998; UNDP, 1995 and IOM, 2002), feminization of migration (Martins, 2003); globalization (Musaccio, 2004; Osezua, 2012), and patriarchy (Aghatise 2002, Osezua, 2012). Information provided by National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Person NAPTIP for the period 2003-2008 also indicate that 2,120 victims of human trafficking were rescued by the Agency (NAPTIP, 2008).

Nigeria is currently been described as a leading country in human trafficking with UNICEF classifying her as a leading country of origin for human trafficking (Skogeth, 2006). The preferred destination of those involved in sex trafficking is include Europe and some African Countries like Mali, Benin Algeria and Libya. A notable and distinguishing dimension of the Nigerian version of human trafficking is the active use of voodoo to charm potential and actual trafficked persons (Osezua, 2016) Despite the fact that prostitution has always existed in Nigeria the phenomena of trafficking for the purpose of international prostitution is relatively recent (Onyeonoru, 2003, Nzeogwu, 2004).

Nigeria is also a signatory to many International Conventions. Some of these Conventions have been domesticated. Some of them include: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948; Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, CEDAW, 1979; Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of Prostitution of Other, 1949 and the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights,1981. Others include International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention on Minimum age on Forced Labour, 1999; Convention of Rights of Child, 1989 and United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000. This suggests Nigeria has put adequate legal provisions in place to protect women’s rights with regards to human trafficking, but the implementation and enforcement remain a controversial matter altogether. Laws are not implemented in a vacuum, but within a social structure. Consequently, Maus, (1990) affirmed that sexual exchange of girls and women embodies deep cultural practices, which often times requires a historic interrogation of the family and kinship structures.

For instance, in Nigeria, the capital of Edo State, metropolitan Benin City is considered as a major market for cross border commercial sex work arising from human trafficking. (Onyeonoru, 2003, Norli, 2006). Majority of the studies previously conducted in relation to women trafficking and international prostitution in Benin City identified economic depression, occasioned by Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) as the root cause of this imbroglio (Women’s Health and Action Research Centre (WHARC), 2002; Osakue and Okoedion, 2002; UNICRI/UNODC, 2003; Onyeonoru, 2003).

However, there are however no empirical data, which suggest that the Benin are the most adversely affected by the economic downturn in Nigeria. Also, all the studies (WHARC, 2002; Osakue and Okoedion, 2002; UNICRI/UNIDOC, 2003) identified the involvement of close relatives or family members. These studies however attribute the Benin family involvement in illegal trafficking for sexual exploitation to poverty (Long, 2004) observed that trafficking for sexual exploitation though a world -wide phenomenon, implicates a cultural practice within the given society.

Importantly, previous studies have utilized macro theoretical perspective in explaining the phenomenon of trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Micro theoretical method like ethnography, has the potential of capturing emic perspectives of people and give greater attention to the cultural environment of the study area. Existing social dynamics of a particular society differ from another.

This accounts for the reason why some nations are “sending communities” (that is those who traffic) while some are “destination nations” (WHARC, 2002; Mussaccio, 2004). This study bridges the gap in terms of by paying greater attention to the gender issues within a socio-cultural context.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

The study on menace caused by human trafficking came about as a result modern slavery, sex slavery and as well as labour exploitation. Secondly, most of the research has been carried out on human trafficking but not even a single research has been done on menace caused by human trafficking.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

 

The main aim of the research work is to determine menace caused by human trafficking. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. to determine the causes of human trafficking in Edo State.
  2. to educate local communities and bring awareness campaigns on human trafficking.
  3. to implement effective policy to prove and strengthen the law enforcement agency in Nigeria international communities.
    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS               

1   What are the causes of human trafficking in Edo State?

  1. In what ways would the local communities be educated?
  2. How will the implementation of effective policy improve and strengthen the law enforcement agency in Nigeria and international communities?
    1. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
  3.  
  4.              
    1. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on menace caused by human trafficking will be of immense benefit to the entire citizens of Edo state in the sense that it will educate them on the utilization of human right, it will also enlighten the government to create jobs opportunities for the citizens of the country in other for them to be engaged.

  1. SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on menace caused by human trafficking is limited to Edo State.

  1. LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS
  2.             A person or thing that is likely to cause harm; a threat or danger.

Human Trafficking         This is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:62
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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