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EFFECT OF DIVORCE ON CHILD LABOUR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 65 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis ::   30 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Child labour is a pervasive problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Africa and Asia together account for over 90% of the total child employment (ILO 2006). As an exploitative activity, Onyango argues that child labour is a way by which children under the ages of sixteen years are exposed to conditions of work that may be harmful to their physical, emotional, mental or moral welfare. In addition, Onyango notes that observations made among working children in factories show that work can stunt development during the period of growth, prevents children from going to school and creates cheap labour. The current study investigated whether or not child labour activities that are commercial in nature have an influence on academic performance.

A person’s education is closely linked to his life chances, income and well being (Battle and Lewis 2002). Therefore, it is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders one’s educational attainment. Education generally is seen as an agent of socialization and integration of a child or an adult into the norms of the society. Equally it is the process of transmitting the culture of a society to the learners in a formalized setting. Unequivocally, it is seen as the bedrock of any nation. In order to ensure the growth and development of a nation, it becomes imperative for right policy to be in place to allow for effective planning and execution of educational programmes.

Interaction with students of low academic performance shows that most of them came from poor or broken homes with little or no means of livelihood; hence they need to fend for themselves. This exposes them to psychological and emotional instability. According to Anukam (1986), Waboso (2000), Esu (2002), Okpechi (2005) and the international society for the prevention of child labour, abuse and neglect (ISPCAN) which led to the formation of the African Network for the prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) frown at child labour and abuse. All these groups condemn child labour and abuse. A child is said to be abused if he or she is denied basic rights like any other, citizen. In essence he is subjected to a lot of maltreatment and forced to live under the most un-conducive environment. Child abuse takes many forms, for example, child labour, deprivation, sexual abuse, psychological and physical child abuse, children used in rituals, battering, child soldering, child prostitution, Human trafficking, child abandonment, early marriage to mention but a few Abudu, (1984); Dyorough, (1986), Waboso (2000), Okpechi, (2005).

It is common in the society to see school age children as baby-sitters, house boy/maid servant services, housekeeping etc. the researcher kept on imagining why these children are not in school. Again, if at all they attend school do they perform well? As a teacher, the researcher had on several times observed some students in class sleeping while teaching is going on. When asked why they sleep at that time, their answers most of the time is always that they do labour before coming to school and so they are so weak i.e. (child labour). The researcher also observed that most students do not perform well academically, and therefore started to ponder whether their poor performances would be attributed to their involvement in child labour (Domestic work).

Academic performance has been largely associated with many factors. Most student in Nigeria are daily confronted with challenges of coping with academics under serious emotional strains occasioned by long walk to school, poor school environment, and been taught by unmotivated teachers. Couple with this, is an uncooperative to study attitude of parents who more often toil to provide for the needs of the family. These would definitely not augur well for academic success.

Cognitive implication of child labour includes difficulties in learning and in school performance. Many studies on causes of poor academic performance have consistently stressed the abused, maltreated, or neglected child on the average score lower on cognitive measures and demonstrative lower school achievement when compared with non abused peers of similar socioeconomic backgrounds (Vondra, Barnett and Cicchetti, 1990). Youngster with caring parents or caregivers learn to view themselves as worthy lovable and successful in school – related and cognitive tasks. However, children of uncaring caregivers may see themselves as unworthy of love or caring and incompetent in school performance (Barnett, Vondra and Shonk, 1996). The detrimental characteristics of abusive and neglectful parenting often lead to loss of self esteem and a lack of motivation to succeed at school (Lowenthal, 1998). At a very early age, maltreated child exhibit difficulties in selfesteembehaviour and adaptation to their environments. Abused toddlers respond more negatively, in contrast with non-abused peers, to their miner images and make fewer positive statements about themselves (Barnett, 1997).

The neglected group of labored children appeared to display the most severe problems in a number of studies. They were the last successful on cognitive tasks in class compared with the other types of maltreated children (Eckenrode, Laird and Doris, 1993; Mash and Wolfe, 1991). They are also inattentive, and apathetic, and they had difficulty in concentrating on cognitive tasks. A major reason for their poor performance could have been the lack of stimulation that the children received in their homes due to poor quality and erratic living conditions. The effects of their environments became more obvious at school because the children lacked opportunities to learn the necessary social and cognitive skills for school success.

At later school age, a number of studies demonstrate that all types of labored children demonstrated more cognitive difficulties and were considered more at risk for school failure and dropping out than their non labored classmates (Kurtz, Gaudin, Wodarski, and Howing, 1993; Reyome, 1993). The abused youngsters were rated by their teachers as more overactive, inattentive, impulsive, and disorganized than their non-abused classmates. They appeared less motivated to achieve at school and had difficulty learning.

The child presence in the labour market carries many implications. Dragmaci, [1985] asserts that lack of schooling perpetuates a bleak and hopeless status quo barring the way to any sort of advancement or better life. He adds that those who work and go to school may not succeed in education. This is because the long hours spent on the job result in fatigue, restlessness and lack of concentration in class. This in turn may lead to poor performance, failure and high dropout rates.

For a child to perform academically well, he/she needs a stable mind and a motivating environment. These conditions often elude some children particularly those from low-income homes child abuse can have a drastic consequences on the future life of the child, it is dehumanizing. It engenders low self esteem, promotes inferiority complex, belittles the individual, as well as degradation of one's personality (The punch. August 14, 2004).

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Times without number, there have been public outcry including media campaign against the prevalent exposure of children to this avoidable social misfortune called child maltreatment. When one goes out, one sees children engaged in petty-trading and street begging, while some hawk for their parent and guardians when they should be laying a solid foundation for the future. One reads about rape of children in the newspaper. One also sees cases of child prostitution in order to get money. Parent leave their children at home uncatered for and run after money making, there are also cases of child battering by some parents. In a developing country like Nigeria, some socio-economic problems militate against the survival, development and protection of child. There is deprivation of basic emotional need largely due to parental absence from home in pursuit of economic survival. Poverty could lead to behaviours or rejection, intolerance, discrimination, deprivation, marginalization, cruelty and maltreatment towards children.

In school, one observed student who are affected with anxiety, depression, passive or withdrawal behaviour. Some of the student engage in aggressive, destructive and in appropriate acts or delinquent behaviour. One sees neglected children stealing or begging for food, students not coming to schools regularly and student sleeping during lessons almost all the time. Some seek inappropriate affection from offers. All these type of negative behaviours are wide spread in the country and they usually affect students’ academic performance.

Evidences are enormous that children who are involved in child labour are generally at risk for a variety developmental and psychological outcome due to excessive exposure to hazard. They also function poorly intellectually (Ebigbo 1986). Therefore, the problem of this study stands as a question. How does child labour as an aspect of child abuse reflect on the academic performance of students who engage in it in Nigeria? It is on this background that the study is carried on.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of divorce on child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include:

  1. to determine the relationship between child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria.
  2. to examine the causes of child labour.
  3. to examine the effect of divorce on child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria.
  4. to determine the academic performance of children engaged in child labour and those who do not.
  5. to proffer solutions to the effect of divorce on child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria.
    1. RESAERCH QUESTIONS
  1. What is the relationship between child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria?
  2. What are the causes of child labour?
  3. What is the effect of divorce on child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria?
  4. What is the academic performance of children engaged in child labour and those who do not?
  5. What are possible solutions to the effect of divorce on child labour and academic performance of students in Nigeria?
    1. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
  1. HO: divorce on child labour has no significant effect on the academic performance of students in Nigeria.
  2. H1: divorce on child labour has significant effect on the academic performance of students in Nigeria.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The present study is considered significant, as it will provide information on the incidence and level of involvement of most Nigerian students in child labour, as well as some factors which help to influence this practice. It would further reveal how child labour affect or influence the academic performance of students in Nigeria. Information on the incidence will sensitize the family and guardians and relevant policy-makers to the magnitude of child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect in the area of study.

Furthermore, the study would review the pattern of relationship between child labour, and the academic performance of students in Nigeria. If it is found out that child labour has adverse effects on the academic performance of secondary school students, parents may be told sufficiently to withdraw children from such activities. This same information will sensitize the government to formulate laws to curb the excesses of child labour and make it compulsory for parents/guardians to send their children or wards to school.

  1. SCOPE OF STUDY

The study will cover the effect of divorce on child labour and academic performance in Nigeria.

  1. LIMITATION OF STUDY
  1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
    1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Divorce:

It is the legal dissolution of a marriage by a court or other competent body. It is the process of terminating a marriage or marital union.

Child labour

Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful.

It is the employment of children in an industry or business, especially when illegal or considered exploitative.

Academic performance:

Academic performance is mainly related to assessment and it is about a student's success or lack of it in meeting short- or long-term goals in education. How students perform reflect how well they have mastered the content taught (Ballard & Bates, 2008). However, there are various factors that ensure and are considered to be hindering good performance in educational settings. Some of these factors are; language as a medium of instruction, teaching and learning resources, parental involvement, study habits, class size, teachers‟ pedagogical and assessment skills (Farooq, Chaudry, Shafiq & Berhan, 2011). It has been observed that since the introduction of the multi-faith curriculum in 1996 in Botswana, RE students have been performing poorly (Dinama, 2010). Student academic performance is of paramount importance in every academic institution (Regier, 2011) and that is why the students‟ academic performance in RE remains a top priority for educators in religion. This is because when students achieve good grades, they become competitive in the world of work and may have better employment opportunities.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:65
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
Price:₦3,000
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