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Project Topic:

IDENTIFYING, CLASSIFYING AND APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FINGERPRINT AND THE PROCEDURE USED IN DETERMINING OF A CRIME

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 50 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   42 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Biometrics is an automated method that recognizes people based on their physical and action characteristics, and is a field that used to authenticate a certain individual’s characteristics, recognize a person’s character, or study a person’s measurable characteristics.

Among the different biometrics, like face, hand, iris, voice and many others, fingerprints is the most dominant biometric technology in commercial applications due to their distinctiveness, persistence, accuracy, throughput, size and cost of readers.

The modern history of fingerprint identification begins in the late 19th century with the development of identification bureaus charged with keeping accurate records about individuals indexed, not according to name, but according to some physical attribute. Only in the 19th century were modern states bureaucratic enough to presume to maintain organized criminal records that extended beyond a single parish or locality.

Early criminal records indexed by name were vulnerable to subversion by the simple expedient of adopting an alias. Hence there developed the idea of indexing records according to some bodily feature. An early, extremely cumbersome, effort was the British Register of Distinctive Marks, which listed convicts according to some distinctive feature like a birthmark, scar, or tattoo.

The demand for criminal histories was in large part driven by changes in jurisprudence. A shift of focus from the criminal act to the criminal individual demanded more complete and more accurate knowledge about each offender’s criminal history. This would enable individualized penal “treatment” and differential punishment of first-time offenders and recidivists.

Although there is a long and murky prehistory of uses of fingerprints to authenticate the identity of individuals, principally in Asia, it was not until the late 19th century that efforts were made to use fingerprints for the more technically demanding process of identification—that is, rather than merely verifying whether or not an individual is claiming the correct identity, selecting the correct identity of an unknown individual from a large database of possible identities.

 The cradle of the modern fingerprint system was colonial India, where British administrators were concerned about maintaining social control over the native population. A workable identification system was desired for numerous purposes, including combatting fraud through impersonation in the disbursement of what today would be called “entitlements,” such as pensions; resolving disputed identities in civil legal disputes over land deeds or contracts; monitoring the movement of targetted population groups, such as the so-called criminal tribes; and maintaining criminal histories of persons convicted of crimes.

Sir William Herschel, grandson of the Astronomer Royal William Herschel and son of the polymath John Herschel, a colonial administrator in the Hooghly district of Bengal, helped bring fingerprints to the attention of British scientists and bureaucrats. Although Herschel recorded his first inked handprint on a road-building contract with Rajyadhar K¯ on¯ ai in 1858, it was not until 1877, after two decades of dallying with fingerprints, that he formally proposed that “sign-manuals,” as he called them, be used to identify individuals.

Herschel tried to characterize his 1858 print as an inventive act, but it seems more likely that it was inspired by tip sahi, a Bengali practice of signing documents with a fingertip dabbed in ink. British awareness of the potential utility of fingerprint patterns was further stimulated by Henry Faulds, a Scottish physician doing missionary work in Tokyo.

Faulds wrote a letter to Nature describing how he happened upon fingerprint patterns on ancient Japanese ceramics and proposing that their use be investigated for criminal identification purposes. Faulds also described some brief research establishing that Gibraltar monkeys and the various human races all shared the same basic pattern structure and an episode in which he actually used a “greasy finger-mark” to solve a petty crime at the embassy.

 Herschel hastily answered Faulds’ letter with one of his own, asserting his priority in the “discovery” of fingerprints, if not in publication. This set off a priority dispute between Herschel and Faulds that would last more than 50 years.

In fact, Thomas Taylor, a microscopist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, had beaten both men to publication by three years. Faulds’ claim to have made the earliest forensic fingerprint identification, meanwhile, turns out to have been anticipated, though quickly forgotten, more than two decades earlier by John Maloy, a constable in Albany, New York.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study on identifying, classifying and application of the different types of fingerprints and the procedures used in determining of a crime came about as a result of lack of recognizing fingerprints due to poor quality images, lack of competencies in distinguishing the different types of fingerprint due to lack of proper training. Finally, most of the research has been carried out on fingerprints, but not even a single research has been carried out on the identification, classification and determining of a crime.

 

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to identify, classify and the application of the different fingerprints and the procedures used in determining of a crime. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. to determine the effect of biometrics(fingerprint) in crime.
  2. to determine the effect of fingerprints on the identification of humans.
  3. to determine the effect of poor quality images on the identification of fingerprint during crime investigation.
  4. to determine the effect of the unskilled on the identification of fingerprint on crime investigation.
    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. What is the effect of biometrics (fingerprint) in crime?
  2. What is the effect of fingerprint on the identification of humans?
  3. What is the effect of poor quality images on the identification of fingerprint during crime investigation?
  4. What is the effect of the unskilled on the identification of fingerprint on crime investigation?
    1. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
  5. :    Fingerprint identification has no significant effect in determining a crime.
  6. Fingerprint identification has a significant effect in determining a crime. 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on identifying, classifying and application of the different types of fingerprint and the procedures used in determining a crime will be of immense benefit to the entire Nation. The findings will reveal the effect of fingerprint in crime investigation. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on identifying, classifying and application of the different types of fingerprint and the procedures is limited to crime.

 

 

  1.  

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Identify. Establish or indicate who or what (someone or something) is.

Classifying.    This is the act of categorizing something or someone into a certain group or system. 

Application.   The action of putting something into operation.

Fingerprints. An impression or mark made on a surface by a person's fingertip, able to be used for identifying individuals from the unique pattern of whorls and lines on the fingertips.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:50
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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