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Project Topic:

PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT USING EGG SHELL TO TEST THE COMPRESSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: experiment, abstract, references ::   1,285 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The construction sector of Nigeria has improved over the years with new ideas in technology and availability of machineries; although development of a nation not only depends upon the technology but also depends upon infrastructural development of that nation in question. The quest for infrastructural development will be far cry without concrete infrastructure (U.N Okonkwo, 2012).

        According to H.C Lung, (2008)  stated that concrete is defined as a material used in the construction of building structures such as beam, column and slab due to its sustainability of carrying large loads. Nevertheless, concrete strength has its limit when it comes to excessive force exerted that may lead to concrete failure even though concrete is indispensible material in every construction. The major element of concrete is cement. In Nigeria today, the cement price is volatile and demand is so high, hence there is need for an alternate material can be used for replacement of cement. Since several replacement experiments were done for coarse and fine aggregate. Hence we go for replacement for cement. The material which could serve as a replacement for cement is the eggshell powder which is from egg shell.

        According to Sensale, (2009) stated that calcium rich egg shell is a poultry waste with chemical composition nearly same as that of limestone. Use of eggshell waste instead of natural lime to replace cement in concrete may have benefits like minimizing use of cement, conserving natural lime and utilizing waste material. Eggshell stabilized soil as sub-grade material for road construction. Eggshell is mainly composed of calcium compounds that is very similar to that of cement and presented as being composed of 93.70% calcium carbonate. Thus, it is an alternative that enables the cement to be replaced with eggshell. It is an advantage where the amount of cement usage can be reduced at the same time saves budget for any project. Calcium oxide is produced when calcium carbonate is incinerated to ash at temperature 500˚C and provides as a good accelerator due to extra calcium oxide in it. Calcium oxide also improved the setting time, as minimizing the length of setting time is much desirable in construction industry since it can be interrupted by unpredictable weather especially in the rainy season (Okonkwo et al., 2007). Apart from these studies, no other investigations were found in literature to use eggshells in civil engineering applications. Therefore, to initiate use of eggshell waste for partial replacement of cement in concrete, there is a need to understand concrete properties made with eggshell powder (A. J. Olarewaju et al, 2011).

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The growth in poultry production has contributed to the growth and development in Nigeria. Despite the contribution of poultry to socio-economic development in Nigeria, they also contribute to increase in the volume of waste because their egg shells. The egg shell of poultry in some area are littered all over the place and thus becoming an eyesore. Secondly there have been several studies on concrete using cement or eggshell but not even a study have been carried in out on a partial replacement of cement using egg shell to test the compressile strength of concrete in Nigeria.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to carry out an experiment for the partial replacement of cement using egg shell to test the compressile strength of concrete. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. carry out a comparative analysis on the compressile strength of concrete from cement and that from egg shell
  2. to examine the difference in relative strength development with age between the concrete from cement and that from egg shell
  3. to investigate on the factors affecting the concrete from cement and that of egg shell
  4. to determine the cost of production of concrete from cement and that of egg shell

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives of the study. The research questions for the study are:

  1. What is the difference in compressile strength of concrete from cement and that from egg shell?
  2. What is the difference in relative strength development with age between the concrete from cement and that from egg shell?
  3. What are the factors affecting the concrete from cement and that of egg shell?
  4. What is the cost of production of concrete from cement and that of egg shell?

1.5 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY

This section deals with the organization of the research work in chapters; the chapter one of the research work will cover the background of the study, the statement of problem, the aims and objectives of study, significance and the scope of study, the chapter two will deal with the review of related literature on cement and egg shell. The chapter three of the research work will cover the areas of materials and method. The chapter four will cover the area of experiment; while the chapter five will cover the summary, conclusion and possible recommendation for the research work

1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Concrete Mix Design

This method covers the procedure for designing concrete mixes and is based on the absolute volumes of the various components of the mix, i.e.: the absolute volumes of cementitious materials, aggregate, water and air in one cubic yard of concrete.

Procedure:

Specifications govern the following elements of concrete mixtures:

  • Minimum Cement Content or "Cement Factor" (CF) expressed as pounds per cubic yard of concrete.
  • Maximum allowable water content or water-cement ratio (W/C) expressed as pounds of water per pound of cement.
  • When air entrained concrete is specified, the air content is expressed as percent of the volume of the concrete.

Finally using the formular below:

Absolute volume (cu. ft.) =

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the partial replacement of cement using egg shell to test the compressile strength of concrete will be of immense benefit to the civil engineering department, The government (local, state and federal) and other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic as the findings of the study will educate the above population on the how to make concrete using cement and egg shell. The study will also differentiate the compressile strength between the concrete manufactured from egg shell from that manufacture from cement. Also the study will discuss on the economic difference from concrete from cement and egg shell. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Cement: a grey powder made by burning clay and lime that sets hard when it is mixed with water

Egg shell:is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

U.N. Okonkwo, I.C. Odiong, and E.E. Akpabio, The effects of eggshell ash on strength properties of cement-stabilized lateric, Int. J. of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, 13(1),18-25 (2012)

A.U. Elinwha and Y.A. Mohmood, Ash from timber waste as cement replacement material, 24(2), 219-222 (2012) [3] F. Udoeyo, H. Inyang, D. Young, and E. Oparadu, Potential of wood waste ash as an additive in concrete, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 18(4), 605–611 (2006)

R. Jayasankar, N. Mahindran, and R. Ilangovan, Studies on concrete using fly ash, rice husk ash and egg shell powder, Int. J. of Civil and Structural Engineering, Integrated Publishing Services, 1(3), 362-372, (2010)

C.B. Cheah and M. Ramli., Mechanical strength, durability and drying shrinkage of structural mortar containing HCWA as partial replacement of cement, Construction and Building Materials, 30, 320-329 (2011)

H.C. Lung, B.L. Tuan, and C.C. Tsun, Effect of rice husk ash on the strength and durability characteristics of concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 25, 3768- 3772 (2011)

G.R. de Sensale, Effect of rice husk ash on durability of cementitious materials, Cement and Concrete Research, 32,718-725 (2010)


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:56
Attribute:experiment, abstract, references
Price:₦3,000
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