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Project Topic:

ASSESSMENT OF LABORATORY PRACTICAL AND DEMONSTRATION IN TEACHING METHOD ON BIOLOGY STUDENTS PERFORMANCE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 101 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   331 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The laboratory in the school has been defined by several authors in different ways. Maduabum (2002) sees a laboratory as a place where scientific exercises are conducted by the science teachers for the benefit of the students (learners). The laboratory exercises include; experiments, and other activities which help the students in acquiring scientific skills.

Ezeliora (2001) defined science laboratory as a workshop where science is done or where scientific activities are carried out under conducive environment. She also sees the laboratory as a place where science equipment, materials or instruments are housed for security and safety.

Igwe (2003) observed that a laboratory can be indoor such as the sufficiently designed and equipped room found in most schools or outdoor involving such places as riverside, workshop, field and even market for carrying out scientific studies. He further stated that whatever the type of laboratory employed in science teaching, the same laboratory experience should be attained, that is a participation n the series of experimental, observational and demonstrating activities which provide opportunity for students to develop understanding of practical and theoretical concepts through solutions of problems.

Demonstration method of teaching and learning is a method in which teachers dramatize topics to be taught by either the use of items or recorded materials, while Students are made to practice the skills demonstrated in readiness for the time they will be asked to display their level of efficiency in the performance of those skills. It is one of the effective methods of learning Biology education subjects or courses as it explains steps/acts of an operation/principles and shows how a process, procedure or an experiment to be carried out, what to do, and why it should be done that way (Ajoma, 2009).

Demonstration teaching strategy is of key importance in teaching sciences (Vladimir in Maizuwo, 2011). Demonstrations should be relatively short (as compared with other methods of teaching), performed with the simplest equipment that ensures the same effect and it is vital that the science behind them is well understood at the secondary school (Maizuwo, 2011). Teacher-demonstration method therefore, is a teacher-centred method of teaching whereby the teacher illustrates a procedure to be followed and thereafter students follow those procedures to solve the given problems.

For instance, Gracia (2015), illustrated an example using Human Biology System Foldable. The teacher demonstrates how to draw the diagrams on cardboard and how to fix the foldable on the diagrams drawn. The students then learn by imitating the teacher.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Laboratory and demonstration method of teaching when fostered in different ways can ultimately and positively affects students understanding, achievement and interest in Biology. Laboratory and demonstration method was chosen. Biology as a science subject is bulky in nature.  Poor performances may be occasioned by the very poor state of resources for teaching and learning Biology; and the unchallenging environment under which the business of teaching Biology takes place. The state of the Biology laboratories in schools ranged from total absence of laboratories to ill-equipped ones; which might be due to lack of funding by the government in other to set up the laboratory to a standard in a way which will  encourage the teacher/students to teach and learn effectively. It could also be that the teachers are not even able to operate the apparatus in the laboratory thereby leaving it to be mishandled and thereby leading to its value loss. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the assessment of inquiry method of teaching biology and its effect on the academic performance of Biology students but not even a single research has been carried out on the assessment of laboratory practical and demonstration in teaching method on Biology student’s performance.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

        The main aim of the study is the assessment of laboratory practical and demonstration in teaching method on Biology student’s performance. Other specific objective of the study include:

  1. to determine the factors affecting laboratory practical method of teaching Biology.
  2. to determine the performance of students taught Biology using laboratory practical method and those taught using demonstration teaching method.
  3. to determine the factors affecting demonstration teaching method of Biology.
  4. to ascertain the effect of the use of laboratory practical and demonstration method of teaching on Biology students performance.
  5. to determine the difference between laboratory practical and demonstration method of teaching Biology.
  6. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS               

  1. What are the factors affecting laboratory practical method of teaching Biology?
  2. What are the performances of students taught Biology using laboratory practical method and those taught using demonstration teaching method?
  3. What are the factors affecting demonstration teaching method of Biology?
  4. What is the effect of the use of laboratory practical and demonstration method of teaching on Biology student’s performance?
  5. What is the difference between laboratory practical and demonstration method of teaching Biology?
  6. What are possible solutions to the problems?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1

H0:   Laboratory practical and demonstration method of teaching has no significant effect on Biology student’s performance.

H1:      Laboratory practical and demonstration method of teaching has a significant effect on Biology student’s performance.

Hypothesis 2

H0:   there is no difference in Biology student’s performance under the use of Laboratory practical and demonstration method

H1:      there is difference in Biology student’s performance under the use of Laboratory practical and demonstration method.

Hypothesis 3

H0: Gender does not influence students’ academic performance in biology who were taught by demonstration and those that were taught by laboratory method

H0: Gender influences students’ academic performance in biology who were taught by demonstration and those that were taught by laboratory method

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

        The study on the assessment of laboratory practical and demonstration in teaching method on Biology will be of immense benefit to Biology Teachers, Students, Curriculum Planners, Ministry of Education, Textbooks Publishers, Parents/guardians, Educational Administrators and Future Researchers. Biology teachers benefitted by using the appropriate teaching methods; laboratory practical and Demonstration in inculcating the principles and concepts of Biology to their students which will enhance the Students‘ academic performance.

In addition, it will aid the teachers in preparing students for higher learning of Biology in Universities or Colleges as well as clerical job in public and private sectors of the economy, making this study imperative. The findings from this study would assist the teachers to increase their confidence and to improve their teaching strategies particularly in remedying misconceptions held by students in Biology at the Secondary School level.

Moreover, it will equally be of great use to the curriculum planners as it assisted them to suggest relevant methods for teaching different topics in the curriculum. Students‘ academic performance will improve through the use of appropriate teaching methods. The findings will also influence the curriculum innovation programme in Biology. The findings from this study would therefore shed light on the instructional strategy that is suitable for both sexes. The Federal Government of Nigeria will benefit by using the findings of this study to engage teachers and administrators in training programmes that can model this new educational approach.

The Federal Ministry of Education at both the State and Federal level benefitted from this study by using the findings of this study to engage teachers in various form of workshops, seminars and conferences in training programme that can model and modify this new teaching and learning methods. The findings in this research are useful to Parents/Guardians who are interested in seeing improvement in the performance of their students in the science subjects.

The study will also provide a teaching/learning strategy that teachers‘of Biology could adopt so that students in their classes will benefit maximally, thereby meeting the needs of individual students in the class. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

        The study on the assessment of laboratory practical and demonstration in teaching method is limited to Biology student’s performance.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Assessment     The action of assessing someone or something.

Laboratory Method         Is a planned learning activity dealing with original or raw data in the solution of problem. It is a procedure involving first hand experiences with materials or facts derived from investigations or experimentation.

Practical Of or concerned with the actual doing or use of something rather than with theory and ideas.

Biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.

Demonstration method         Demonstration method of teaching and learning is a method in which teachers dramatize topics to be taught by either the use of items or recorded materials.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:101
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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